Bibliography of Bias In Evaluation: Cultural Biases

  1. Defining Diversity in Academia. (2000). Retrieved October 26, 2003, from Louisiana State University, Department of Academic Affairs 
    Keywords: diversity, affirmative action
    Summary: Lists and defines the different types of diversity related to academia.
  2. Mannix. Margaret (2002). “Who’s Missingin the Faculty Club?” ASEE Prism, 12.
    Keywords: minority, international, reputation, employment practices
    Summary: Addresses how to attract minority candidates in terms of atmosphere, opportunities, and rewards.
  3. Pearson, Willie and Fetcher, Alan, Eds. (1994). Who Will Do Science? Educating the Next Generation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Keywords: black scientists, women in science, future of science, trends in science
    Summary: Collection of articles about the future of science and the future demographics of its practitioners. Includes articles about contributions of black scientists, barriers to women scientists, and a discussion of who future scientists will be.


  1. Glazer-Raymo, Judith. (1999). Shattering The Myths: Women in Academe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press
    Keywords: progress, critical feminist perspective, advancement in higher education, activism, passivity, ambivalence towards feminism, generational differences, intellectual and ideological struggles
    Summary: Utilizes a critical feminist perspective to assess the progress of women in higher education since the 1970s. Contrasts activism of 1970s, passivity of 1980s, and ambivalence towards feminism demonstrated in 1990s. Argues changes were brought about by external forces, generational differences among women, and by intellectual and ideological struggles within the women’s movement and the larger academic culture. Provides data on women’s rank, salary, employment status, and education and draws upon the actual professional experiences of women faculty and administrators within higher education.
  2. National Research Council. (2001). From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
    Keywords: gender differences, career outcomes, labor force participation, research productivity, salary differences
    Summary:Examines the issue of gender differences in the careers of doctoral scientists and engineers, documenting both the representation of women in science and engineering and in the characteristics of women scientists and engineers. In the life and social sciences, the number of women receiving bachelor’s degrees equals or exceeds the number of men. However, women continue to be underrepresented as professors and elsewhere in the higher levels of science and engineering. Notes that educational background of parents has a strong impact upon the educational outcomes of young women.
  3. Hopkins, Nancy. (1999) " MIT and Gender Bias: Following up on Victory." The Chronicle of Higher Education, 45. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: Unconscious bias, gender bias, departmental policy, normative stereotypes
    Summary: Summarizes response to MIT gender discrimination report, including denial of discrimination among some departments. Discusses difficulties in recognizing and confronting unconscious bias.
  4. Kazak, Don. (1999, February 5). STANFORD: " Feds investigate gender bias complaints." Weekly Online Edition. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: Gender bias, promotion, termination, tenure
    Summary: Department of Labor investigates Stanford, a Federal contractor, on the basis of complaints made by 15 women who were allegedly terminated or not promoted because of gender bias.
  5. Santora, Cathleen Curry. (2003, April 18) " Preventative Law: How Colleges Can Avoid Legal Problems. " The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords:legal planning, preventive law, conflict resolution, grievance, appeal, tenure, mediation
    Summary: Suggests how to avoiding or soften effects of gender discrimination and litigation.
  6. Williams, Joan. (2002, June 17). " How Academe Treats Mothers. " The Chronicle of Higher Education: Career Network. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: Family policies, gender bias, cognitive bias, training, scenario, litigation
    Summary: Describes the attribution of a supportive role to women in academia. Explores possible basis in cognitive bias. Highlights culturally held tensions between motherhood and career. Provides recommendations for addressing these tensions within academia.
  7. Long, J. Scott and Fox, Mary Frank. (1995)" Scientific Careers: Universalism and Particularism. " Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 45-71.
    Keywords: gender; race; careers; equity and inequity; bias
    Summary: Depicts the career attainments of women and minorities in science and considers the meaning and measurement of universalism (assessment that is not influenced by personal and social attributes of the scientist) and particularism (use of “functionally irrelevant characteristics,” such as gender and race in allocating rewards in science). Analyzes causes of different levels of attainment in science, by gender and race and proposes the conditions under which particularism (bias) is likely to occur.
  8. Fox, Mary Frank and Ferri, Vincent. (1992, September) " Women, Men and Their Attributions for Success in Academe." Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 257-271.
    Keywords: gender, explanations for success, social locations and conditions
    Summary: Uses data from a national survey of academics in four fields to analyze the way that explanations of success vary between academic women and men. Addresses the significance of attributions of success as they relate to equal opportunity policies and solutions to increase rates of faculty members’ success.
  9. Fox, Mary Frank. (1996). Women, Academia, and Careers in Science and Engineering. In C.S. Davis, A. Ginorio, C. Hollenshead, B. Lazarus, and P. Rayman (Eds.), The Equity Equation: Fostering the Advancement of Women in the Sciences, Mathematics, and Engineering (pp. 265-289). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Keywords: gender, women, science, engineering, careers, attainments, policy
    Summary: Analyzes indicators of women’s career attainments in academic science, addresses factors accounting for women’s career attainments, and proposes prospects and policy for success for women in academic science and engineering.
  10. Cole, Jonathan R. (1979). Fair Science: Women in the Scientific Community. New York: Free Press.
    Keywords: women, science, intelligence, measuring inquity, equity, history of women in science
    Summary: Discusses the problems of trying to measure discrimination in science careers and historical trends for women in science careers. Author focuses on issues of reputation and recognition to determine inequalities in academia, and examines the relationship between measured intelligence and academic achievement.
  11. Rosser, Sue V. and Zieseniss, Mirellie. (2000). “Career Issues and Laboratory Climates: Different Challenges and Opportunities of Women Engineers and Scientists.” Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 6: pp. 1-20.
    Keywords: balancing work and family, career obstacles, environmental factors and career, contrasting scientists and engineers, differences between science and engineering careers
    Summary: Explains how environmental factors contribute to whether different disciplines of science and engineering are female-friendly and correlates this to the large discrepancies in the numbers of women in social science versus women in hard sciences. Author surveyed women in science and engineering who had received NSF POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awards in 1997 and then contrasted the responses of the scientists and engineers to determine what sorts of problems face each group. Both groups of women named balancing work and family as the most difficult issue to resolve in their lives, while there were also some differences in other issues listed by the two groups.
  12. Rosser, Sue V. (2001). “Balancing: Survey of Fiscal Year 1997, 1998, 1999 POWRE Awardees.” Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 7: pp. 1-11.
    Keywords: careers in science and engineering, women in science and engineering, NSF awardees, job growth
    Summary: Suggests that efforts must be made to attract women toward degrees in science and engineering because job growth in those sectors is expected to increase dramatically between 1998 and 2008, and women scientists and engineers will be key for maintaining a critical mass of workers. Author surveyed NSF POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awardees for three years to determine what obstacles face women pursuing science and engineering careers.
  13. Rossiter, Margaret. (1982). Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Keywords: women scientists, history of science, women’s history, early science, Marie Curie
    Summary: Chronicles the experiences of real women scientists. Tells of women scientist’s educational and workplace experiences prior to 1940 including women’s struggles to be accepted as bona fide scientists in their own left.
  14. Rossiter, Margaret. (1995). Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action, 1940-1972. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Keywords: World War II, women scientists, history of science, women’s history
    Summary: Chronicles the experiences of women scientists in America from WWII era until affirmative action. Includes discussion of women scientist’s experiences in academia as well as in the corporate workplace and tells how WWII affected women’s experiences as professionals.
  15. Fidell, L.S. (1975). “Empirical Verification of Sex Discrimination in Hiring Practices in Psychology.” In R.K. Unger and F.L. Denmark (Eds.), Women: Dependent or Independent Variable? New York: Psychological Dimensions.
    Keywords: gender discrimination, gender bias
    Summary: Describes method and results of a study evaluating gender bias in hiring. Chairs were solicited to assess qualifications of 10 fictional candidates and to specify rank at hiring. Chairs generally offered lower-ranked positions to female candidates and higher-ranked positions to men.
  16. Wulf, William. (2001). “The Declining Percentage of Women in Computer Science: An Academic View.” Who Will Do the Science of the Future? Washington D.C: National Academy Press. Excerpts at
    Keywords: gender differences, gender bias
    Summary: Contains statistics describing women’s participation in computer science. Considers reasons men and women are attracted to study the field, women’s lack of confidence in their abilities, and environmental barriers that prevent their participation.

Race & Ethnicity

  1. McIntosh, Peggy. (1988). "White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women’s Studies." Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: gender bias, racial bias, ethnic bias, normative stereotypes
    Summary: Explores common themes of privilege and difference bestowed by biased cultural trajectories on women and minorities.
  2. Golden, Marita. (2002, October). "White Women at Work." Essence, 190-198.
    Keywords: racism, invisibility, double standard, mentor, sexism, glass ceiling
    Summary: Explains how to handle black females’ challenges in the corporate world through the perspectives of seven successful black women.
  3. Malveaux, Julianne. (2003, January). " The Many Faces of Bias. " Black Issues in Higher Education.
    Keywords: separatism, exclusion, bias, race
    Summary: Reacts to discrimination at the Augusta National Golf Club by stating that the white male patriarchy is an enemy of women and African Americans.
  4. Randall, Vernellia R. (1997). "Two Black Women Talking about the Promotion, Retention, and Tenure Process." In L. Benjamin (Ed.), Black Women in the Academy: Promises and Perils. (pp. 213-226, 219-223). Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.
    Keywords: race, bias, committee, promotion, tenure, retention
    Summary: Discusses bias and discrimination during a promotion and tenure process where African Americans are viewed as being incompetent and under-qualified due to race. States that racism and bias should not be tolerated.
  5. Jayate, Satyame E. (2002, November 26)." Racism on the Tenure Track." The Chronicle of Higher Education: Career Network. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: racial discrimination, diversity
    Summary: Relates the personal experience of a professor who was discriminated against, fired, and forced to resign based on his race. Advises caution in choosing tenure-track jobs. Recommends documentation of institutional actions.
  6. Nettles, Michael T., Perna, Laura W., and Bradburn, Ellen M. (2000, Summer). " Salary, Promotion, and Tenure Status of Minority and Women Faculty in U.S. Colleges and Universities. " Education Statistics Quarterly, 1-5.
    Keywords: promotion and tenure, salary and evaluation, gender and race differences, human capital differences, structural factor differences
    Summary: Examines differences among postsecondary faculty members according to gender and race/ethnicity. Makes comparisons on several human capital variables (e.g. education and experience), structural variables (e.g. academic discipline and institution type), as well as faculty outcomes (e.g. salary, tenure, and rank).
  7. Lindsay, Beverly. (Summer 1994). “African American Women and Brown: A Lingering Twlight of Emerging Dawn?The Journal of Negro Education 63: pp. 430-442. Full Article:
    Keywords: racial bias, mentoring
    Summary: Examines the factors hindering “the integral presence of African-American women in pivotal decision-making positions in colleges and universities throughout the US.” Presents the results of interviews.


  1. Sugg, John. (2002, February 20). " The College of Law<(suits). " Creative Loafing: Atlanta Edition.
    Keywords: discrimination lawsuit, anti-Semitism
    Summary: Discusses discrimination litigation concerning Kennesaw State University and former employee Paul Lapides, who claimed discrimination due to Jewish heritage.
  2. Walker, Graham. (1996, September 17)." Speaking Out: Reflections on a Tenure Denial." University of Pennsylvania: Almanac, 43-4.
    Keywords: religious discrimination, tenure
    Summary: Letter written by tenure candidate who was denied tenure due to his religious views. Describes professor’s experiences with discrimination.

Family Issues

  1. Hochschild, Arlie R. and Machung, Anne. (2003). The Second Shift. New York, NY: Penguin Group, Inc.
    Keywords: Gender, informal rewards, equity and inequity
    Summary: Discusses the household workload of a working mother and how responsibility is or is not being shared in dual-career households. Analyzes how this “domestic bind” affects both spouses and their careers.
  2. Woolston, Chris. (2001, October 22). " The Gender Gap in Science. " The Chronicle of Higher Education: Career Network. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: gender roles, gender bias, normative stereotypes, family, parenting
    Summary: Reviews cases, causes, and suggested remedies for gender discrimination in the sciences and explores socio-cultural economic basis of discrimination.
  3. Williams, Joan. (2000). Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What To Do About It. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
    Keywords: family and work conflict, workplace structure and organization, male life patters, reconstructive feminism, class conflicts, race conflicts, gender conflicts
    Summary: Outlines a new vision of workplaces focusing on the needs of families. Recognizes value of family work in divorce cases. Notes workplaces are designed around life patterns of men producing discriminatory effects for women. Argues the resulting work/family system is bad for men, worse for women, and the worst for children. Presents practical policies and legal initiatives to reorganize employment settings and households. Presents as a solution an “inclusive family-friendly feminism” that supports both men and women as caregivers and workers.
  4. Watanabe, Myrna. (2002, April 1) " Scientist Couples Do the Two-Job Shuffle. " The Scientist, 16. Retrieved October 26, 2003
  5. Fogg, Piper. (2003, June 13). " Family Time: Why Some Women Quit Their Coveted Tenure-Track Jobs." The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: research, publishing, family policies, motherhood, parenting, workload
    Summary: Recounts a single mother’s struggle toward her eventual rejection of the heavy demands of academia.
  6. Steele, Ann. (2003, July 7). " Giving Birth in Graduate School." The Chronicle of Higher Education: Career Network. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: family, motherhood, parenting, non-tenure track, gender bias
    Summary: Describes stress, choices, and tradeoffs accompanying childbirth while in an academic career.
  7. Grant, L., Kennelly, I., and Ward, K.B. (2000) “Revisiting the Gender, Marriage, and Parenthood Puzzle in Scientific Careers.” Women’s Studies Quarterly 28: pp. 62-85.
    Keywords: gender, marriage, parenthood, careers
    Summary: Investigates why studies showing no decrease in productivity for scientists who are also mothers vary so much from women’s actual experiences. Researchers used interviews to get information about the decisions about family that scientists make, and how these affect science careers.
  8. Raabe, Phyllis Hutton. (1997). “Work-Family Policies for Faculty.” In M.A. Ferber and J.W. Loeb (Eds.) Academic Couples: Problems and Promises. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
    Keywords: work and family, dual-career couples, family and academia, childcare, academic couples, support programs
    Summary: Article addresses what can be done to make academia a more family-friendly environment, including recommendations for on-campus childcare facilities and more flexible work schedules. Author also discusses a survey implemented to determine the availability of work/family-friendly policies at different types of universities, and how often such policies are utilized by faculty.

Spousal Hire

  1. Gilbey, Elizabeth. (2002, December 9). "A Trailing Spouse Finds Her Way." The Chronicle of Higher Education: Career Network. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: family policies, family, spousal hire, dual career
    Summary: Describes the expected subordinate role projected onto women by personnel at the institute where the author’s husband recently received a tenure-track job.
  2. Mason, Mary Ann and Goulden, Marc.(2002, November/December). "Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on the Lifelong Careers of Academic Men and Women." Academe, 88. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: family policies, motherhood, parenting, workload, non tenure-track
    Summary: Notes that despite increased number of women in graduate schools, the percentage of women faculty has remained constant since 1975. Hypothesizes that this is due to family policies inconsistent with the demands of motherhood.