Bibliography of Bias In Evaluation: Organizational Challenges

  1. Frost, Peter J. and Taylor, M. Susan. (1996). Rhythms of Academic Life: Personal Accounts of Careers in Academia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Keywords: promotion and tenure, faculty development, narratives, teaching, research, service, pedagogy; teamwork, academic sabbaticals
    Summary: Surveys important topics relevant to academia (e.g. publishing, research, teaching, pedagogy, teamwork, sabbaticals, and tenure). Presents articles written by a diverse collection of scholars, providing rich accounts of unique academic journeys. Describes the experiences of scholars in different roles and transition points. Provides guidelines to assist others in making informed choices.
  2. Fox, Mary Frank. (2003). "Gender, Faculty, and Doctoral Education in Science and Engineering." In L. Hornig (Ed.) Equal Rites, Unequal Outcomes: Women in American Research Universities (pp. 91-109). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
    Keywords: gender, faculty, graduate students, graduate education, advisors, advisees, research teams
    Summary: Based upon data from a national sample of faculty in doctoral granting departments of computer science, chemistry, electrical engineering, microbiology, and physics. Analyzes patterns of women and men faculty in: 1) gender composition of advisees and research team members; 2) nature/characteristics of their interaction with advisees; and 3) their beliefs about what is important in doctoral education for female compared to male students in science and engineering.
  3. Merton, Robert K. (1973). “The Normative Structures of Science.” In The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Keywords: sociology of science, defining science, norms beliefs, standards
    Summary: Chapter analyzes the definition and sociology of scientific practice.
  4. Konrad, Alison M. and Pfeffer, Jeffrey. (July 1991). “Understanding the Hiring of Women and Minorities in Educational Institutions.” Sociology of Education 64: pp. 141-157. Full Article:
    Keywords: compensation
    Summary: The conditions under which women and minorities were hired for managerial positions in higher education administration were studied using data on 821 institutions the 1978 and 1983 College and University Personnel Association's annual compensation surveys. The percentage of women in a particular job across institutions, the percentage of women in all the administrative positions in an institution, and the fact that the previous occupant of the position was a woman all had a positive, unique effect on the odds that a new hire was a woman. The effects of minority composition on the hiring of minorities were similar

  5. Wilshire, Bruce. (May 1990). “Professionalism as Purification Ritual: Alienation and Disintegration in the University.” The Journal of Higher Education 61: pp. 280-293. Full Article:
    Keywords: professionalism, research, teaching
    Summary: Research and undergraduate teaching need not be mutually exclusive, but the way research is conceived tends to make them so. Research is tied to a seventeenth-century conception of knowledge that divides the disciplines into disconnected chunks and thereby impedes education. This "scientific" partitioning is abetted by and conceals archaic forces of identity formation: tacit purification ritual and exclusion.

Resource Distribution

  1. Wilson, Robin. (1999, December 3). "An MIT Professor’s Suspicion of Bias Leads to a New Movement for Academic Women." The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: unconscious discrimination, resource allocation, isolation, alienation, decision making
    Summary: Explains Dr. Nancy Hopkins’ role in prompting a review of departmental gender bias among institutions of higher learning.
  2. Smallwood, Scott. (2002, April 5). "Women Still Feel Marginalized at MIT." The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, p. A9.
    Keywords: wage discrimination, resource allocation, marginalization, decision making, empowerment, access, belonging
    Summary: Summarizes MIT reports describing forms of overt discrimination such as wage and resource allocation inequity, as well as more subtle forms of discrimination.
  3. Fenker, Richard M. (July 1977). “The Incentive Structure of a University.” The Journal of Higher Education 48: pp. 453-471. Full Article:
    Keywords: incentives, performance, workload
    Summary: This paper develops a method for measuring the "incentive structure" of a college or university. A trial instrument was constructed and administered to the faculty of a private university in order to determine: (1) the relative importance of possible incentives to faculty, and (2) the perceived relationship between specific teaching and research behaviors and the probability of receiving various incentives. The result indicate that for this institution research-related behaviors are perceived to have greater influence on the reception of key incentives than do teaching-related behaviors. Although the results cannot be generalized empirically because of the single-institution sample, a critical evaluation of the methodology may prove useful to other universities planning similar self-studies.


  1. Wilson, Robin and Fogg, Piper. (2003, January 10). "Half a Million Reasons to Leave Harvard; Support for Sex-Bias Suit Against Columbia." The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49. Retrieved October 26, 2003, from
    Keywords: wage and gender bias, retaliation, resource allocation

Grad Students

  1. Fox, Mary Frank. (October 2002). “Women in Science and Academia: Graduate Education and Careers.” Gender & Society 15: pp. 654-666.
    Keywords: gender, science, graduate education, careers
    Summary: Article focuses upon these questions: What is the status of women in scientific careers and the role of graduate education in these careers? What are the implications for the analysis of gender? Where can we intervene and how?