Bibliography of Bias In Evaluation: Informal Rewards

Informal Mentoring

  1. Park, Paula. (2001, June 25). "Of Mentors, Women, and Men." The Scientist, 15, pp. 32.
    Keywords: mentor, mentoring, academic culture, family, parenting
    Summary: Relates the struggles of a woman scientist with a promising career in academia in an environment dominated by male personalities.
  2. Fox, Mary Frank. (2000, Spring/Summer). "Organizational Environments and Doctoral Degrees Awarded to Women in Science and Engineering Departments." Women’s Studies Quarterly, 28, pp. 47-61.
    Keywords: teaching, retention of graduate students, organizational environments, gender equity, guidelines, sufficiency of doctoral work
    Summary: Examines organizational environments in science and engineering departments and their impact on women. Notes conceptions of a good environment may differ by category of department. Indicates many survey respondents believe strong faculty-student and advisor-advisee interaction foster good environments for women.
  3. Rosser, Sue V. (1997). Re-engineering Female Friendly Science. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Keywords: teaching, retention of female undergraduate and graduate students, single-sex colleges, coeducational science, women’s science support groups, women’s studies programs
    Summary: Examines how faculty at women’s colleges can encourage students to persist when faced with the realities of coeducational science. Notes the need for additional research data, offering suggestions applicable to graduate school years and undergraduate years at women’s colleges. Presents critical measures for retention of female undergraduate and graduate students, including women in science support groups and affiliating with women’s studies programs.
  4. National Science Foundation Division of Science Resource Studies. (1996). Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 1996. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: retention of female students, academic role models, persistence, attrition rates
    Summary: Examines reasons women and underrepresented minorities find few role models in science and engineering fields. Indicates causes women and underrepresented minorities often drop out of science and engineering undergraduate programs


  1. Barker, Kathy. (2002, May 13). "Fine Tuning." The Scientist, 16, 58.
    Keywords: recognizing gender bias, subconscious discrimination, communication styles
    Summary: Reviews gender stereotypes associated with communication and work. Suggests techniques for recognizing potentially discriminatory practices.
  2. Bergvall, Victoria, Sorbey, Sheryl, and Worthen, James B. (1994). "Thawing the Freezing Climate for Women in Engineering: Views From Both Sides of The Desk." Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 1, 323-346.
    Keywords: isolation, education, workload, engineering, family
    Summary: Introduces types of gendered learning styles and recommends changes in current engineering curriculum to attract and retain women.
  3. Valian, Virginia. (1998). Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Keywords: gender, evaluation, professional competence
    Summary: Discusses evaluation in chapter 7, "Evaluating Men and Women," including perceptions of leadership, competence, assertiveness. Discusses the costs for a woman of being masculine and of being perceived as feminine.
  4. Canada, Katherine and Pringle, Richard. (July 1995). “The Role of Gender in College Classroom Interactions: A Social Context Approach.” Sociology of Education 68: pp. 161-186. Full Article:
    Keywords: teaching, gender in the classroom
    Summary: This study examined the social construction of gender differences in classroom interactions during the first five years of a former women's college's transition to mixed-sex education. The classroom interaction patterns of male and female professors and students were considerably altered by the transition and by the gender composition of the classes. For example, male and female professors initiated comparable numbers of interactions in the all-female classrooms, but female professors initiated many more interactions and male professors initiated much fewer interactions in the mixed-sex classrooms. Also, in the mixed-sex classrooms, the increasing presence of male students was associated with an overall decrease in professor-initiated interactions, student-initiated interactions, and female student-initiated follow-up interactions and with an overall increase in male student-initiated follow-up interactions. The authors interpret these gender differences as arising out of an emerging gender politic that was largely absent in the all-female student environment, but to which the mixed-sex community, during the period of observation, fundamentally acquiesced.


  1. Subramaniam, Banu. (2000). "Snow Brown and the Seven Detergents: A Metanarrative on Science and the Scientific Method." Women’s Studies Quarterly, 28, 296-304.
    Keywords: culture, justice and injustice, ethics, hierarchy, intimidation, recognition, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, family issues
    Summary: Fictionalizes a woman’s experience in higher education. Illustrates how an educational system pressures individuals to conform and neglect characteristics that contribute to his or her individuality. Draws attention to the primarily white, male, patriarchal structure of higher education.
  2. Fox, Mary Frank. (1999). Gender, Hierarchy, and Science. In J.S. Chafetz (Ed.), Handbook of the Sociology of Gender (pp. 441-457). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
    Keywords: gender, women, science, engineering, careers, participation, performance, rewards
    Summary: Analyzes indicators of women’s career attainments in academic science, addresses factors accounting for women’s career attainments, and proposes prospects and policy for success for women in academic science and engineering.
  3. Merton, Robert K.(1973). "The Matthew Effect in Science." In The Sociology of Science (pp. 439-459). Chicago, IL:University of Chicago Press.
    Keywords: evaluation, reputation, rank, advantage, disadvantage
    Summary: Proposes the "Matthew Effect," whereby the accrual of greater recognition to scientific contributions goes to those with already considerable reputation, and less recognition goes to those with lesser reputation. The effect is hypothesized to apply especially in cases of collaboration and multiple discoveries among those of unequal rank.


  1. Steinpreis, Rhea. (2001). "Studies Confirm Faculty’s Unconscious Gender Bias." Kansas State University Office of Academic Services. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: gender bias, hiring, retaliation, advising, sexism"
    Summary: Describes how identical curriculum vitae sent to randomly selected psychology faculty nationwide reveal bias favoring male name on Curriculum Vitae. Indicates results of research within fields, noting reprisals for departments following recommendations for correction of gender bias.
  2. Godfrey, Elizabeth. (2001). "Defining Culture: The Way We Do Things Around Here." Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition. Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: sink or swim, symbolic artifacts, core beliefs, efficiency, cultural norms, engineering exceptionalism
    Summary: Accounts of engineering school culture as observed through material culture (buildings, clothing, furniture, and spatial relations) and interactions at a large New Zealand University.
  3. Skolnik, Michael L. (November 1989). “How Academic Program Review Can Foster Intellectual Conformity and Stifle Diversity of Thought and Method.” The Journal of Higher Education 60: pp. 619-643. Full Article:
    Keywords: conformity, disciplinary differences
    Summary: In spite of its commitment to the unfettered search for truth, the university has been criticized for exerting pressure toward intellectual conformity, and several contributing factors have been identified. Drawing upon the experience of Ontario, this article describes how one such factor, program review, can mitigate against diversity and innovation.


  1. Lattica, Lisa R. (2001). Creating Interdisciplinarity: Interdisciplinary Research and Teaching Among College and University Faculty. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
    Keywords: interdisciplinary research and teaching, institutional context, departmental context, disciplinary context
    Summary: Presents theory of interdisciplinarity. Collects interviews with faculty engaged in interdisciplinary scholarship. Clarifies term by focusing on the nature of inquiry behind the work. Offers useful suggestions for individuals concerned with the evaluation of faculty scholarship.
  2. Russo, Eugene. (2003, June 30). "Team Work: Group examines professional pitfalls created by participating in large interdisciplinary projects." The Scientist, 17.
    Keywords: team science, interdisciplinary, infrastructure, resources, integration
    Summary: Addresses problems of participation in interdisciplinary projects including competition, promotion, grant money distribution, and recognition. Makes recommendations for improvement for future projects.
  3. Bahls, Christine and Schachter, Beth. (2002, March 4). "Interdisciplinary Research Gets Formal: Casual chats in the hallway turn into collaborative efforts in the lab." The Scientist, 16[5], 17.
    Keywords: interdisciplinary research, informal/formal, holistic, tools,coomunicate
    Summary: Describes how interdisciplinary research is changing from an informal to a formal, organized process. Explains why interdisciplinary research has become more prominent and aspects of successful interdisciplinary research.
  4. Brainard, Jeffrey. (2002, June 14)." U.S. Agencies Look to Interdisciplinary Science: Research centers receive more support, and peer-review process receives more scrutiny. "The Chronicle of Higher Education: Government and Politics, p. A20.
    Keywords: collaboration, interdisciplinary research, bias, diversify, funding
    Summary: Describes how universities such as Arizona State are adapting to interdisciplinary research in science. Addresses obstacles, payoffs, and what can be done at the campus and federal levels along with what has been achieved so far.
  5. Burnett, Rebecca E. and Ewald, Helen Rothschild. (1994). "Rabbit Trails, Ephemera, and Other Stories: Feminist Methodology and Collaborative Research." JAC, 14[1].
    Keywords: collaboration, conflict, feminist methodology, authority, patriarchy, perceptions, working style
    Summary: Analyzes through self-reflective critique the connections between feminist methodology and collaborative research to find areas of conflict in the formation and function of collaborative research groups.


  1. Galegher, Jolene, Kraut, Robert E., and Edigo, Carmen. (1990). Intellectual Teamwork: Social and Technological Foundations of Cooperative Work. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Keywords: Communication, collaboration, teamwork, collegiality, interaction, interdisciplinarity.
    Summary: Discusses the social and organizational phenomena resulting from work that is done in groups. Exposes problems causing inefficient aspects of teamwork. Describes information technology created by teams and how it developed to improve on such practices.
  2. Burnett, Rebecca E. (1992). "Conflict in Collaborative Decision-Making." In Nancey Roundy Blyer and Charlotte Thralls (Eds.), Professional Communication: The Social Perspective (pp. 144-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
    Keywords: collaborative decision-making, substantive conflict, disciplinary perceptions
    Summary: Characterizes collaboration as a complex problem-seeking and decision-making activity. Argues that decision-making is more productive if co-authors engage in “substantive conflict.” Proposes that substantive conflict is critical in deferring inappropriate consensus. Suggests collaborators should pose alternatives and voice explicit disagreements about both content and rhetorical elements.


  1. The American Political Science Association. (2003). "Ethics in Tenure and Promotion." In A Guide To Professional Ethics in Political Science (section G). Retrieved October 26, 2003
    Keywords: external review, procedure, guidelines, criteria, tenure process
    Summary: This article examines the litigation and policy issues surrounding the claims by colleges and universities to confidentiality of the peer review process and of the competing claims of faculty who seek access through the courts to materials utilized in and deliberations of the peer review process.
  2. Weeks, Kent M. (March 1990). “The Peer Review Process: Confidentiality and Disclosure.” The Journal of Higher Education 61: pp. 198-219. Full Article:
    Keywords: legal issues, peer review
    Summary: This article examines the litigation and policy issues surrounding the claims by colleges and universities to confidentiality of the peer review process and of the competing claims of faculty who seek access through the courts to materials utilized in and deliberations of the peer review process.